from Kenggertula at Ertix River westward to Karman Mountains


The Counsellor Minister of Talbahtai was headquartered at Yar (today’s Ujal in Kazakhstan, moved, in 1767, to Chuhuchu, today’s Tacheng City in Xinjiang) and administered the border area from Kenggertula at Ertix River westward to Karman Mountains (Karbin Mountains), then southwestward to Aigus River (Ayagus River), and then further to the eastern end of the northern bank of the Balkhash Lake. The Counsellor Minister of Ili was headquartered in Huiyuan City (within today’s Huocheng County, Xinjiang) and administered the border area from the eastern end of the northern bank of the Balkhash Lake westward to the Chui River (also known as the Chu River), then southeastward to the Talas River, and then southeastward to the Karabula Mountains and further to the Nalin River. The Counsellor Minister of Kashgar was headquartered in Laining City (today’s Sulek County, Xinjiang) and administered the border area from the Nalin River southward to the Gablan and Sutiblak Mountains (between Guliqa and Eshi), and then to the Alai Mountains, and further southward to the upper reach of the Penchi River in the south of the Pamirs. The Qing government formulated strict border patrol regime for the frontier areas in the west of Xinjiang, which provided that each counsellor minister sent a patrol troop of hundreds of people to meet at a designated point every fall⑵.

  1. Establishment of Military Offices

The highest decision-makers of the Qing government paid tremendous attention to the post­unification administration in Xinjiang. Qianlong Emperor repeatedly asked his officials to employ a long-term perspective and make careful plans for Xinjiang from the height of treating “garrison defence in the northwest as the fundamental need of the state”. He said, “It is important to ensure lastingComo tomar el te verde stability in Ili after it becomes part of the nation; it is not good to lose it again”^3*. After serious discussions between the emperor and his ministers, Xinjiang policies were decided, which included installation of official posts politically, stationing of large troops militarily, and land development economically so as to make the border areas self-sustaining.

In October 1762 (the 27th year of Qianlong reign), the Qing court officially announced the installation of the General for Ili and Other Places in Xinjiang (abbreviated as Ili General). The imperial decree went as follows, “since Ili is the seat of the capital of Xinjiang where troops are now stationed and land is tilled, it is only natural to put a General there to take charge of all military affairs”四.The Ili General was the highest-ranking military and administrative officer representing the Qing central government in Xinjiang and took all responsibilities for the military and administrative affairs across Xinjiang from the headquarters in Huiyuan City


Armesh Lake on the left side of middle Ertix


The two sides eased relations to some extent after Gal dan became Khan and founded the Junggar Khanate. Particularly, at around the time of the Yaksa Battle between Qing and Russia in 1685 (the 24th year of Kangxi reign), Gal dan strengthened relations with Russia. The Russian side expressed “the hope for agreement with Boshoktu Khan (that is, Gal dan) on military attack against the Mongols” and “the idea of building Russia-Oyrat alliance”画,prompting and emboldening Galdan to invade Khalkha Mongols. When Galdan lost in the war and fled to Hovd, Russia immediately abandoned this While Tshe dbang Arabutan and his son Galdan Tshering were in reign, Russia resumed its expansionist policy towards Junggar and escalated its encroachment activities despite repeated demands from Junggar Khanate for Russia to pull out of the Junggar pasture land. In 1716 (the 55th year of Kangxi reign), the Russian troops went along the Ertix River and penetrated deep into the

Armesh Lake on the left side of middle Ertix, which triggered the famous “ArmeshLake Battle” Junggar sent over 10,000 troops and besieged the invading Russians, and finally drove them out of the Armesh Lake after killing 3,000 and capturing hundreds of Russian officers and soldiers. Then the Russians changed tactics and built “a fortress line” along the Ertix River by modern military means, which cut into the Junggar pasture like daggers. The Junggar Khanate resisted tit for tat: they moved some subordinate Kirgiz to the Issykkul Lake, sent troops over to destroy newly built fortresses before the enemies were fully prepared, and attacked and harassed Russian strongholds. In parallel, the Junggar Khanate also repeatedly staged protests and warnings to the Russian side through regular diplomatic channels. In 1720 (the 59th year of Kangxi reign), after being thwarted in his Tibetan expedition, Tshe dbang Arabutan sent envoy to Russia to seek support. Russia insisted that its support be preconditioned on Junggar’s submission. Amidst such adversities, the ruling class of Junggar had a debated on whether they should submit to Russia. The debate ended with a “no” answer, which fully testified to the unyieldingness and integrity Templo del Cielo y gran muralla of the Junggar people, Upon succession to the khanship, Galdan Tshering continued to pursue a resistant policy towards Russian’s encroachment. In 1742(the 7th year of Qianlong reign), the Junggar Khanate sent a special envoy to Peterburg to deliver a message to the Russian Tsarina and make serious representations with Russia over the latter’s invasion and encroachment. In the letter, Galdan Tshering spelt out the boundary of Junggar in details, listed the sites of all Junggar villages in the border area totaling 5,000 tents or so, and demanded that the Tsarina order the withdrawal of all invading Russians. He wrote,”Otherwise I would by no means tolerate them living on my land/’Zlatkin^ History of Junggar Khanate, p363) The Khanate began to decline as a result of internal conflicts after Galdan Tshering’s death, however, it sent an envoy to Peterburg again in 1751 (the 16th year of Qianlong reign), reiterating the request for Russian withdrawal from the occupied Junggar land. In 1755, the Qing government sent out troops and unified the Western Regions, and the Junggar Khanate fell into pieces.

 


the grandson of Nishu Khan, Yipishekui


In 642 AD, the Tang government appointed the grandson of Nishu Khan, Yipishekui, as the Khan of the Western Turks, so as to control, through him, the northern and western parts of the Western Regions. But Yipishekui was thinking about limiting the Tang influence to the east of the Western Regions. He gained control of Yanqi through a marriage between his subordinate and Yanqi princess, and then obstructed transport and harassed Xizhou. The Tang troops defeated Yanqi in 644 AD (the 18th year of Zhenguan reign), but without effective occupation. In 648 AD, the Tang government sent out troops again, which were still a coalition of the Han and minority people, the latter constituting the main force. The commander was a surrendered Turk, Right General Ashina Sher. Composed by 13 divisions of Teli troops, over 100,000 Turks and the Han troops from the Central Plains, Yizhou and Xizhou, the Tang army first captured Yanqi, then attacked Qiuci. Ashina Helu and Quliqo from the Western Turks surrendered to the Tang troops. Then the Tang army went south, where the king of Yutian also surrendered. The Tang government made the newly surrendered Kunshan Route General Supervisor and Left General, Ashina Helu, a Yabgou (or deputy king) and continued the expedition. The Western Turks thus stopped fighting and pledged allegiance one after another, and the western expedition was a complete success. The military operations aimed at unifying the Western Regions came to a temporary stop.

In the aftermath of the victory, the Tang government set up four military garrison commands in the Western Regions, Sulek(also known as Shule), Qiuci, Yutian and Yanqi (changed to Suiye, or Suyab, between 679 AD and 719 AD), which were all under the control of the Protector of Anxi.

Historically, they were known as the“Four Garrison Commands of Anxi”. The installation of the Office of Protector of Anxi and the Four Garrison Commands of Anxi was an important step in the Tang Dynasty’s rule over the Western Regions, In terms of post installation, while inheriting governance strategies of previous dynasties, the Tang government invented some new measures in its administration Gran muralla, mutianyu y badaling en china in the Western Regions, which can be summed up as follows:

(1)     Continued combination of military and administrative functions in the governance system. Since its creation in the Han Dynasty, the Protector system combining military and administrative

functions was picked up by all the following dynasties, which produced rather good results. This showed that this governance system was basically compliant with the economic and social development in the Western Regions at that time.

 


Topography of “Two Basins Flanked by Three Mountains”


The entire region of Xinjiang features “two basins flanked by three mountains”. The “three mountains” refer to the Altay in the north, the Tianshan in the middle and the Kunlun and Karakorum in the south. The “two basins” are the Junggar in the north and the Tarim in the south. The Tianshan Mountains serve as an axis, dividing Xinjiang into the northern and southern parts, each with distinguishing natural conditions. Customarily, the area around Turpan and Hami is also called Eastern Xinjiang.

The Tianshan Mountains are the biggest mountain system in Asia, running about 2,500 kilometers east-west and 250-300 kilometers north-south. They are a combination of three roughly parallel mountain ridges, which produce a number of depressions and valleys with varying size and height, such as Ili Valley, Major and Minor Yoledus Depressions, Yanqi Depression, Turpan Depression and Hami Depression. The highest point of the Tianshan Mountains is Tomur Peak, 7,435.5 meters above sea level; the Bogda Peak stands at a height of 5,445 meters to the east of Urumqi. The Turpan Depression at the eastern end of the Tianshan Mountains is the lowest point on land in China, 154 meters below the sea level. The Altay Mountains are also known as the Gold Mountains for rich reserve of this precious metal there. The main body of the Altay Mountains is in Mongolia, running about 400 kilometers from northwest to southeast, with an average altitude of 2,000 to over 3,000 meters. The highest point is Youyi Peak, 4,373 meters above sea level. Both the Kunlun and Karakorum Mountains originate from the Pamirs and wind their way eastward side by side. The Karakorum Mountains extend into northern Tibet and connect with the Gandise Mountains; while the Kunlun Mountains run through the border of Xinjiang and Tibet and then reach into Qinghai and Sichuan Provinces. The Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang are 1,800 kilometers long and 150 kilometers wide, with most of their ridges over 5,000 meters in altitude. The “three towers of Kunlun” are the Kongur Peak (7,719 meters), Kongurjobe Peak (7,595 meters) and Muztagata Peak (7,546 meters) Historia de china, lugares de visita, the latter also dubbed as Father of Ice Mountains. The Karakorum Mountains have an average altitude of 5,000-6,000 meters. The Chogori Peak stands at the border between China and Pakistan at a height of 8,611 meters, making it the second highest in the world and the highest in Xinjiang. The Pamirs, nicknamed as “Father of Thousands of Mountains”, is formed by the converging Karakorum, Tianshan and Hindu Kush Mountains.


The Development Strategy of “Big Tourism and Big Market” in Dongying


In the general framework of the social and economic development strategy of Dongying, tourism and lodging industries are occupying an important position. The tourism development plan of Dongying finished at the end of2000 especially stresses the policy of “ big tourism and big market ”. The Standing Committee of Dongying Municipal People’s Congress also believe that in order to meet the requirement of the tourism development, the city, especially the tourism system should further boost up the consciousness of big tourism and speed up the development. Whether it is from the viewpoints of international traditions or from the tourism theory and practice in our country, the hotel industry is the most important part of tourism industry. In fact, the successful implementation of tourism development strategy must be based on the tourism enterprises with core competition advantages. In the course of establishing the micro basis of tourism development strategy, the state-owned enterprises and institution units should assume more important responsibilities and should become a flag of a model and guidance.

1.3 The Strengthening of the Competition in Regional Market

From the development in the 9th Five-Year, the gross tourism income in Dongying had reached 582,000,000 Yuan. In 1999, the foreign and domestic tourists in the city had reached 1,358 person-times and 200,000 person-times respectively and the tourism foreign exchange income and the tourism gross income were USD 421,800 and RMB 143,000,000 Yuan respectively. It can be concluded that the tourism industry in Dongying has already established a basis and is presenting a tendency of speeding up. But with the formation and development of the market scale, the competition becomes more and more furious. By the end of 1999, the number of tourist hotels and travel agencies had reached 25 and 9 respectively. In domestic tourism market, hotel enterprises, represented by Lanhai Company and Yellow River Grand Hotel Viajar en lhasa became strong competitors to the Dongying Hotel. Meanwhile, new star hotels, such as the New Century Grand Hotel, are entering the advanced government and business reception market and will increase the competition greatly.

1.      4 Changes of the Internal Resources and Employee Structure

With time running by, employees and managers of the hotel have changed a lot in their identities, ages, and knowledge structure and value orientations Viajes estudiantiles en china. These changes have breathed new life into the service and management of the hotel on the one hand, and have put forwards higher requirements to the operation and management of the hotel on the other. Therefore, a series of problems have now come to the top of the agenda for the decision makers and managers of the hotel. For example, how to keep sustainable development? How to face more and more furious market competition? How to improve the internal management levels How to intensify its vigor?