the grandson of Nishu Khan, Yipishekui


In 642 AD, the Tang government appointed the grandson of Nishu Khan, Yipishekui, as the Khan of the Western Turks, so as to control, through him, the northern and western parts of the Western Regions. But Yipishekui was thinking about limiting the Tang influence to the east of the Western Regions. He gained control of Yanqi through a marriage between his subordinate and Yanqi princess, and then obstructed transport and harassed Xizhou. The Tang troops defeated Yanqi in 644 AD (the 18th year of Zhenguan reign), but without effective occupation. In 648 AD, the Tang government sent out troops again, which were still a coalition of the Han and minority people, the latter constituting the main force. The commander was a surrendered Turk, Right General Ashina Sher. Composed by 13 divisions of Teli troops, over 100,000 Turks and the Han troops from the Central Plains, Yizhou and Xizhou, the Tang army first captured Yanqi, then attacked Qiuci. Ashina Helu and Quliqo from the Western Turks surrendered to the Tang troops. Then the Tang army went south, where the king of Yutian also surrendered. The Tang government made the newly surrendered Kunshan Route General Supervisor and Left General, Ashina Helu, a Yabgou (or deputy king) and continued the expedition. The Western Turks thus stopped fighting and pledged allegiance one after another, and the western expedition was a complete success. The military operations aimed at unifying the Western Regions came to a temporary stop.

In the aftermath of the victory, the Tang government set up four military garrison commands in the Western Regions, Sulek(also known as Shule), Qiuci, Yutian and Yanqi (changed to Suiye, or Suyab, between 679 AD and 719 AD), which were all under the control of the Protector of Anxi.

Historically, they were known as the“Four Garrison Commands of Anxi”. The installation of the Office of Protector of Anxi and the Four Garrison Commands of Anxi was an important step in the Tang Dynasty’s rule over the Western Regions, In terms of post installation, while inheriting governance strategies of previous dynasties, the Tang government invented some new measures in its administration Gran muralla, mutianyu y badaling en china in the Western Regions, which can be summed up as follows:

(1)     Continued combination of military and administrative functions in the governance system. Since its creation in the Han Dynasty, the Protector system combining military and administrative

functions was picked up by all the following dynasties, which produced rather good results. This showed that this governance system was basically compliant with the economic and social development in the Western Regions at that time.

 


Topography of “Two Basins Flanked by Three Mountains”


The entire region of Xinjiang features “two basins flanked by three mountains”. The “three mountains” refer to the Altay in the north, the Tianshan in the middle and the Kunlun and Karakorum in the south. The “two basins” are the Junggar in the north and the Tarim in the south. The Tianshan Mountains serve as an axis, dividing Xinjiang into the northern and southern parts, each with distinguishing natural conditions. Customarily, the area around Turpan and Hami is also called Eastern Xinjiang.

The Tianshan Mountains are the biggest mountain system in Asia, running about 2,500 kilometers east-west and 250-300 kilometers north-south. They are a combination of three roughly parallel mountain ridges, which produce a number of depressions and valleys with varying size and height, such as Ili Valley, Major and Minor Yoledus Depressions, Yanqi Depression, Turpan Depression and Hami Depression. The highest point of the Tianshan Mountains is Tomur Peak, 7,435.5 meters above sea level; the Bogda Peak stands at a height of 5,445 meters to the east of Urumqi. The Turpan Depression at the eastern end of the Tianshan Mountains is the lowest point on land in China, 154 meters below the sea level. The Altay Mountains are also known as the Gold Mountains for rich reserve of this precious metal there. The main body of the Altay Mountains is in Mongolia, running about 400 kilometers from northwest to southeast, with an average altitude of 2,000 to over 3,000 meters. The highest point is Youyi Peak, 4,373 meters above sea level. Both the Kunlun and Karakorum Mountains originate from the Pamirs and wind their way eastward side by side. The Karakorum Mountains extend into northern Tibet and connect with the Gandise Mountains; while the Kunlun Mountains run through the border of Xinjiang and Tibet and then reach into Qinghai and Sichuan Provinces. The Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang are 1,800 kilometers long and 150 kilometers wide, with most of their ridges over 5,000 meters in altitude. The “three towers of Kunlun” are the Kongur Peak (7,719 meters), Kongurjobe Peak (7,595 meters) and Muztagata Peak (7,546 meters) Historia de china, lugares de visita, the latter also dubbed as Father of Ice Mountains. The Karakorum Mountains have an average altitude of 5,000-6,000 meters. The Chogori Peak stands at the border between China and Pakistan at a height of 8,611 meters, making it the second highest in the world and the highest in Xinjiang. The Pamirs, nicknamed as “Father of Thousands of Mountains”, is formed by the converging Karakorum, Tianshan and Hindu Kush Mountains.


The Development Strategy of “Big Tourism and Big Market” in Dongying


In the general framework of the social and economic development strategy of Dongying, tourism and lodging industries are occupying an important position. The tourism development plan of Dongying finished at the end of2000 especially stresses the policy of “ big tourism and big market ”. The Standing Committee of Dongying Municipal People’s Congress also believe that in order to meet the requirement of the tourism development, the city, especially the tourism system should further boost up the consciousness of big tourism and speed up the development. Whether it is from the viewpoints of international traditions or from the tourism theory and practice in our country, the hotel industry is the most important part of tourism industry. In fact, the successful implementation of tourism development strategy must be based on the tourism enterprises with core competition advantages. In the course of establishing the micro basis of tourism development strategy, the state-owned enterprises and institution units should assume more important responsibilities and should become a flag of a model and guidance.

1.3 The Strengthening of the Competition in Regional Market

From the development in the 9th Five-Year, the gross tourism income in Dongying had reached 582,000,000 Yuan. In 1999, the foreign and domestic tourists in the city had reached 1,358 person-times and 200,000 person-times respectively and the tourism foreign exchange income and the tourism gross income were USD 421,800 and RMB 143,000,000 Yuan respectively. It can be concluded that the tourism industry in Dongying has already established a basis and is presenting a tendency of speeding up. But with the formation and development of the market scale, the competition becomes more and more furious. By the end of 1999, the number of tourist hotels and travel agencies had reached 25 and 9 respectively. In domestic tourism market, hotel enterprises, represented by Lanhai Company and Yellow River Grand Hotel Viajar en lhasa became strong competitors to the Dongying Hotel. Meanwhile, new star hotels, such as the New Century Grand Hotel, are entering the advanced government and business reception market and will increase the competition greatly.

1.      4 Changes of the Internal Resources and Employee Structure

With time running by, employees and managers of the hotel have changed a lot in their identities, ages, and knowledge structure and value orientations Viajes estudiantiles en china. These changes have breathed new life into the service and management of the hotel on the one hand, and have put forwards higher requirements to the operation and management of the hotel on the other. Therefore, a series of problems have now come to the top of the agenda for the decision makers and managers of the hotel. For example, how to keep sustainable development? How to face more and more furious market competition? How to improve the internal management levels How to intensify its vigor?