The Western Liao regime adopted a policy of religious freedom in its rule over the Western Regions (1130-1221), which led to the flourishing of Nestorianism there. The Archbishop Ilya III(pronunciation) set up the Arch-Parish in Kashgar. Some Nestorian nomads, such as Nayman tribe went to the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains. At the Nestorian site in Almalik City were
several stone carvings with the image of cross and Syriac scripts, which were perhaps tombstones of Nestorians in the Nayman tribe in the 12th-13th centuries.
The Mongol Yuan Dynasty saw further development of Nestorianism According to Marco Polo, a famous traveler in the world, he either saw or heard about Nestorian churches or believers in Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, Ili, Luntai, Turpan and Hami, which proved that this faith was spread into different parts of the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains. The Yuan Dynasty also had some renowned Uygur Nestorians, such as Macos (pronunciation), who was the Archbishop of Khitan (China) of the Nestorian church in 1280 and “General Manager of the Oriental Church” in the next year; and Laban Basaum (pronunciation), who served as the General Roaming Supervisor in 1280 and later the ambassador to Europe representing the Persia-based Mongol prince Aluhun. After the 14th century, Nestorianism gradually declined in Xinjiang until its final extinction.
During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, Roman Catholic faith also arrived in the Western Regions. The first man who brought the faith there was a priest of the Dominican Church, Ander Laromme(pronunciation), who was sent in 1249 by the French king Louis IX to Yemili (southeast of Emin) to present letter of credence to the Mongol queen. That first visit was mainly a political one, but what followed was predominantly Chinesisches Horoskop Geburtsdatum Bedeutung for missionary purpose and concentrated in the capital city of Chagatai Khanate, Almalik. The offspring of Chagatai, Timur (also known as Tamerlane) Khan granted missionaries big favor by allowing them to conduct missionary work freely and inviting them to his palace to treat his disease and baptize and name his son. However, after his death in 1340, his successors promoted Islam and forced Roman Catholics to convert or otherwise die, which led to the end of Roman Catholic Church there.
In modern times, Protestant and Roman Catholic churches gained fresh development in Xinjiang. With the entry of Russians, Xinjiang also had Orthodox Church.